# Critical Review Essay Example Psychology Resume

Part of becoming a successful critical reader is being able to translate the thoughts you had whilst reading into your writing. Below are some written examples of the observations a critical reader may make whilst commenting on various issues in text.

NOTE: The critical analysis component of each example below is highlighted in blue.

Further examples of critical writing can be found on the UniLearning Website.

## Overgeneralisations and assumptions

Researchers often make simplifying assumptions when tackling a complex problem. While the results might provide some insight, these answers will also likely have some limitations.

**Example:**

## Methodological limitations

Researchers may simplify the conditions under which an experiment occurs, compared to the real world, in order to be able to more easily investigate what is going on.

**Example:**

## Objectivity of research

Some research may be biased in its structure.

**Example:**

## Limitations due to sample group

Limitations can arise due to participant numbers. **Example:**

Limitations can also arise if there is a limited range of participants.**Example:**

## Limits to applicability

There can be concerns with studies’ applicability, for a number of reasons.

### Results not replicated

One such reason could be that the study results have not been replicated in any other study. If results have not been replicated, it indicates that the results are suggestive, rather than conclusive.**Example:**

### Long term effects unknown

There would be limits to applicability if long term effects have not been tested.**Example:**

### Omissions

It is important to look for things that have not been discussed within studies to ascertain whether this would limit the applicability of the results.**Example:**

## Correlation vs. causation

It is important to be aware that just because one variable is correlated with another, it doesn’t necessarily mean that one variable is the cause of another.**Example:**

**Critique of a Research Article**

The goal of this activity is to give you an opportunity to apply whatever you learned in this course in evaluating a research paper. Warning!!!!You might have done some article summaries or even critical evaluation of some resources. However, this activity is unique because you evaluate a research article from a methodology perspective.

For this assignment you briefly summarize and extensively evaluate the attached educational research article (If you cannot download the article please go to BeachBoard/Content/Articles to download the article).

This assignment should be done individually. In the summary section, you should write a brief (up to 500 words) summary of the article in your own words. Don’t use copy and paste try to rephrase. This will be a good practice for your final project’s literature review. In the critique section, you evaluate the article using the following grading criteria.

**Grading criteria for research critique**

In your summary, you should identify main elements of the research including

1. Research problem

2. Research goal

3. Hypothesis

4. Research Questions

5. Research Method (briefly explain)

6. Sample (participants)

7. Variables

8. Tools (instruments, tests, surveys)

9. Main findings (brief summary of the results)

10. Conclusion

The critique part should be 2-3 pages (1000-2000 words) and include to the following sections. Your critique should be longer than your summary and you pay special attention to the **design and procedure**. Your grade on this assignment is based on your answer the following questions.

There is a long list of questions. You don’t have to address all questions. However, you should address highlighted questions. Some questions are relevant to this article some are not. I listed so many questions simply because I’d like you to learn what to look for in evaluating a research article.

The format of your paper should NOT be like a Q & A list. Instead, you should integrate your answers into an essay format similar to the given examples.

**Introduction**

Problem

1. Is there a statement of the problem?

2. Is the problem “researchable”? That is, can it be investigated through the collection and analysis of data?

3. Is background information on the problem presented?

4. Is the educational significance of the problem discussed?

5. Does the problem statement indicate the variables of interest and the specific relationship between those variables which are investigated? When necessary, are variables directly or operationally defined?

Review of Related Literature

1. Is the review comprehensive?

2. Are all cited references relevant to the problem under investigation?

3. Are most of the sources primary, i.e., are there only a few or no secondary sources?

4. Have the references been critically analyzed and the results of various studies compared and contrasted, i.e., is the review more than a series of abstracts or annotations?

5. Does the review conclude with a brief summary of the literature and its implications for the problem investigated?

6. Do the implications discussed form an empirical or theoretical rationale for the hypotheses which follow?

Hypotheses

1. Are specific questions to be answered listed or specific hypotheses to be tested stated?

2. Does each hypothesis state an expected relationship or difference?

3. If necessary, are variables directly or operationally defined?

4. Is each hypothesis testable?

**Method**

*Subjects*

1. Are the size and major characteristics of the population studied described?

2. If a sample was selected, is the method of selecting the sample clearly described?

3. Is the method of sample selection described one that is likely to result in a representative, unbiased sample?

*4. *Did the researcher avoid the use of volunteers?

5. Are the size and major characteristics of the sample described?

*6. *Does the sample size meet the suggested guideline for minimum sample size appropriate for the method of research represented?* *

Instruments

1. Is the rationale given for the selection of the instruments (or measurements) used?

2. Is each instrument described in terms of purpose and content?

3. Are the instruments appropriate for measuring the intended variables?

4. Is evidence presented that indicates that each instrument is appropriate for the sample under study?

5. Is instrument validity discussed and coefficients given if appropriate?

6. Is reliability discussed in terms of type and size of reliability coefficients?

7. If appropriate, are subtest reliabilities given?

8. If an instrument was developed specifically for the study, are the procedures involved in its development and validation described?

9. If an instrument was developed specifically for the study, are administration, scoring or tabulating, and interpretation procedures fully described?

Design and Procedure

1. Is the design appropriate for answering the questions or testing the hypotheses of thestudy?

*2. *Are the procedures described in sufficient detail to permit them to be replicated by another researcher?

3. If a pilot study was conducted, are its execution and results described as well as its impact on the subsequent study?

4. Are the control procedures described?

5. Did the researcher discuss or account for any potentially confounding variables that he or she was unable to control for?

**Results**

1. Are appropriate descriptive or inferential statistics presented?

2. Was the probability level, α, at which the results of the tests of significance were evaluated,

specified in advance of the data analyses?

3. If parametric tests were used, is there evidence that the researcher avoided violating the

required assumptions for parametric tests?

4. Are the tests of significance described appropriate, given the hypotheses and design of the

study?

5. Was every hypothesis tested?

6. Are the tests of significance interpreted using the appropriate degrees of freedom?

7. Are the results clearly presented?

8. Are the tables and figures (if any) well organized and easy to understand?

9. Are the data in each table and figure described in the text?

**Discussion (Conclusions and Recommendation)**

1. Is each result discussed in terms of the original hypothesis to which it relates?

2. Is each result discussed in terms of its agreement or disagreement with previous results

obtained by other researchers in other studies?

3. Are generalizations consistent with the results?

4. Are the possible effects of uncontrolled variables on the results discussed?

5. Are theoretical and practical implications of the findings discussed?

6. Are recommendations for future action made?

7. Are the suggestions for future action based on practical significance or on statistical

significance only, i.e., has the author avoided confusing practical and statistical

significance?

8. Are recommendations for future research made?

**Make sure that you cover the following questions in your critique even if you have already covered them in your crtique. **

1. Is the research important? Why?

2. In your own words what methods and procedures were used? Evaluate the methods and procedures.

3. Evaluate the sampling method and the sample used in this study.

4. Describe the reliability and validity of all the instruments used.

5. What type of research is this? Explain.

6. How was the data analyzed?

7. What is (are) the major finding(s)? are these findings important?

8.What are your suggestions to improve this research?

Help

Here is a hint on how to evaluate an article.

Use this resource for writing and APA style.

Examples (please note some examples are longer than what is expected for this article)

· Good example

· Poor example

More examples

· Original article

· Article critique